March 07, 2017submitted by CuteBananaMuffin to conspiracy [link] [comments]
from Wikileaks Website
Today, Tuesday 7 March 2017, WikiLeaks begins its new series of leaks on the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency.
Code-named "Vault 7" by WikiLeaks, it is the largest ever publication of confidential documents on the agency.
The first full part of the series, "Year Zero", comprises 8,761 documents and files from an isolated, high-security network situated inside the CIA's Center for Cyber Intelligence (below image) in Langley, Virgina.
It follows an introductory disclosure last month of CIA targeting French political parties and candidates in the lead up to the 2012 presidential election.
Recently, the CIA lost control of the majority of its hacking arsenal including,
...and associated documentation.
This extraordinary collection, which amounts to more than several hundred million lines of code, gives its possessor the entire hacking capacity of the CIA.
The archive appears to have been circulated among former U.S. government hackers and contractors in an unauthorized manner, one of whom has provided WikiLeaks with portions of the archive.
"Year Zero" introduces the scope and direction of the CIA's global covert hacking program, its malware arsenal and dozens of "zero day" weaponized exploits against a wide range of U.S. and European company products, include,
...which are turned into covert microphones.
Since 2001 the CIA has gained political and budgetary preeminence over the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA).
The CIA found itself building not just its now infamous drone fleet, but a very different type of covert, globe-spanning force - its own substantial fleet of hackers.
The agency's hacking division freed it from having to disclose its often controversial operations to the NSA (its primary bureaucratic rival) in order to draw on the NSA's hacking capacities.
By the end of 2016, the CIA's hacking division, which formally falls under the agency's Center for Cyber Intelligence (CCI - below image), had over 5000 registered users and had produced more than a thousand,
hacking systems trojans viruses,...and other "weaponized" malware.
Such is the scale of the CIA's undertaking that by 2016, its hackers had utilized more codes than those used to run Facebook.
The CIA had created, in effect, its "own NSA" with even less accountability and without publicly answering the question as to whether such a massive budgetary spend on duplicating the capacities of a rival agency could be justified.
In a statement to WikiLeaks the source details policy questions that they say urgently need to be debated in public, including whether the CIA's hacking capabilities exceed its mandated powers and the problem of public oversight of the agency.
The source wishes to initiate a public debate about the security, creation, use, proliferation and democratic control of cyberweapons.
Once a single cyber 'weapon' is 'loose' it can spread around the world in seconds, to be used by rival states, cyber mafia and teenage hackers alike.
Julian Assange, WikiLeaks editor stated that,
"There is an extreme proliferation risk in the development of cyber 'weapons'.Comparisons can be drawn between the uncontrolled proliferation of such 'weapons', which results from the inability to contain them combined with their high market value, and the global arms trade.
But the significance of 'Year Zero' goes well beyond the choice between cyberwar and cyberpeace. The disclosure is also exceptional from a political, legal and forensic perspective."
Wikileaks has carefully reviewed the "Year Zero" disclosure and published substantive CIA documentation while avoiding the distribution of 'armed' cyberweapons until a consensus emerges on the technical and political nature of the CIA's program and how such 'weapons' should analyzed, disarmed and published.
Wikileaks has also decided to Redact (see far below) and Anonymize some identifying information in "Year Zero" for in depth analysis. These redactions include ten of thousands of CIA targets and attack machines throughout,
Latin America Europe the United States
While we are aware of the imperfect results of any approach chosen, we remain committed to our publishing model and note that the quantity of published pages in "Vault 7" part one ("Year Zero") already eclipses the total number of pages published over the first three years of the Edward Snowden NSA leaks.
AnalysisCIA malware targets iPhone, Android, smart TVs
CIA malware and hacking tools are built by EDG (Engineering Development Group), a software development group within CCI (Center for Cyber Intelligence), a department belonging to the CIA's DDI (Directorate for Digital Innovation).
The DDI is one of the five major directorates of the CIA (see above image of the CIA for more details).
The EDG is responsible for the development, testing and operational support of all backdoors, exploits, malicious payloads, trojans, viruses and any other kind of malware used by the CIA in its covert operations world-wide.
The increasing sophistication of surveillance techniques has drawn comparisons with George Orwell's 1984, but "Weeping Angel", developed by the CIA's Embedded Devices Branch (EDB), which infests smart TVs, transforming them into covert microphones, is surely its most emblematic realization.
The attack against Samsung smart TVs was developed in cooperation with the United Kingdom's MI5/BTSS.
After infestation, Weeping Angel places the target TV in a 'Fake-Off' mode, so that the owner falsely believes the TV is off when it is on. In 'Fake-Off' mode the TV operates as a bug, recording conversations in the room and sending them over the Internet to a covert CIA server.
As of October 2014 the CIA was also looking at infecting the vehicle control systems used by modern cars and trucks. The purpose of such control is not specified, but it would permit the CIA to engage in nearly undetectable assassinations.
The CIA's Mobile Devices Branch (MDB) developed numerous attacks to remotely hack and control popular smart phones. Infected phones can be instructed to send the CIA the user's geolocation, audio and text communications as well as covertly activate the phone's camera and microphone.
Despite iPhone's minority share (14.5%) of the global smart phone market in 2016, a specialized unit in the CIA's Mobile Development Branch produces malware to infest, control and exfiltrate data from iPhones and other Apple products running iOS, such as iPads.
CIA's arsenal includes numerous local and remote "zero days" developed by CIA or obtained from GCHQ, NSA, FBI or purchased from cyber arms contractors such as Baitshop.
The disproportionate focus on iOS may be explained by the popularity of the iPhone among social, political, diplomatic and business elites.
A similar unit targets Google's Android which is used to run the majority of the world's smart phones (~85%) including Samsung, HTC and Sony. 1.15 billion Android powered phones were sold last year.
"Year Zero" shows that as of 2016 the CIA had 24 "weaponized" Android "zero days" which it has developed itself and obtained from GCHQ, NSA and cyber arms contractors.
These techniques permit the CIA to bypass the encryption of, WhatsApp
CIA malware targets Windows, OSx, Linux, routers
The CIA also runs a very substantial effort to infect and control Microsoft Windows users with its malware.
This includes multiple local and remote weaponized "zero days", air gap jumping viruses such as "Hammer Drill" which infects software distributed on CD/DVDs, infectors for removable media such as USBs, systems to hide data in images or in covert disk areas ("Brutal Kangaroo") and to keep its malware infestations going.
Many of these infection efforts are pulled together by the CIA's Automated Implant Branch (AIB), which has developed several attack systems for automated infestation and control of CIA malware, such as "Assassin" and "Medusa".
Attacks against Internet infrastructure and webservers are developed by the CIA's Network Devices Branch (NDB).
The CIA has developed automated multi-platform malware attack and control systems covering Windows, Mac OS X, Solaris, Linux and more, such as EDB's "HIVE" and the related "Cutthroat" and "Swindle" tools, which are described in the examples section far below.
CIA 'hoarded' vulnerabilities ("zero days")
In the wake of Edward Snowden's leaks about the NSA, the U.S. technology industry secured a commitment from the Obama administration that the executive would disclose on an ongoing basis - rather than hoard - serious vulnerabilities, exploits, bugs or "zero days" to Apple, Google, Microsoft, and other US-based manufacturers.
Serious vulnerabilities not disclosed to the manufacturers places huge swathes of the population and critical infrastructure at risk to foreign intelligence or cyber criminals who independently discover or hear rumors of the vulnerability.
If the CIA can discover such vulnerabilities so can others.
The U.S. government's commitment to the Vulnerabilities Equities Process came after significant lobbying by US technology companies, who risk losing their share of the global market over real and perceived hidden vulnerabilities.
The government stated that it would disclose all pervasive vulnerabilities discovered after 2010 on an ongoing basis.
"Year Zero" documents show that the CIA breached the Obama administration's commitments. Many of the vulnerabilities used in the CIA's cyber arsenal are pervasive and some may already have been found by rival intelligence agencies or cyber criminals.
As an example, specific CIA malware revealed in "Year Zero" is able to penetrate, infest and control both the Android phone and iPhone software that runs or has run presidential Twitter accounts.
The CIA attacks this software by using undisclosed security vulnerabilities ("zero days") possessed by the CIA but if the CIA can hack these phones then so can everyone else who has obtained or discovered the vulnerability.
As long as the CIA keeps these vulnerabilities concealed from Apple and Google (who make the phones) they will not be fixed, and the phones will remain hackable.
The same vulnerabilities exist for the population at large, including the U.S. Cabinet, Congress, top CEOs, system administrators, security officers and engineers.
By hiding these security flaws from manufacturers like Apple and Google the CIA ensures that it can hack everyone at the expense of leaving everyone hackable.
'Cyberwar' programs are a serious proliferation risk
Cyber 'weapons' are not possible to keep under effective control.
While nuclear proliferation has been restrained by the enormous costs and visible infrastructure involved in assembling enough fissile material to produce a critical nuclear mass, cyber 'weapons', once developed, are very hard to retain.
Cyber 'weapons' are in fact just computer programs which can be pirated like any other. Since they are entirely comprised of information they can be copied quickly with no marginal cost.
Securing such 'weapons' is particularly difficult since the same people who develop and use them have the skills to exfiltrate copies without leaving traces - sometimes by using the very same 'weapons' against the organizations that contain them.
There are substantial price incentives for government hackers and consultants to obtain copies since there is a global "vulnerability market" that will pay hundreds of thousands to millions of dollars for copies of such 'weapons'.
Similarly, contractors and companies who obtain such 'weapons' sometimes use them for their own purposes, obtaining advantage over their competitors in selling 'hacking' services.
Over the last three years the United States intelligence sector, which consists of government agencies such as the CIA and NSA and their contractors, such as Booz Allan Hamilton, has been subject to unprecedented series of data exfiltrations by its own workers.
A number of intelligence community members not yet publicly named have been arrested or subject to federal criminal investigations in separate incidents.
Most visibly, on February 8, 2017 a U.S. federal grand jury indicted Harold T. Martin III with 20 counts of mishandling classified information.
The Department of Justice alleged that it seized some 50,000 gigabytes of information from Harold T. Martin III that he had obtained from classified programs at NSA and CIA, including the source code for numerous hacking tools.
Once a single cyber 'weapon' is 'loose' it can spread around the world in seconds, to be used by peer states, cyber mafia and teenage hackers alike.
U.S. Consulate in Frankfurt is a covert CIA hacker base
In addition to its operations in Langley, Virginia the CIA also uses the U.S. consulate in Frankfurt as a covert base for its hackers covering Europe, the Middle East and Africa.
CIA hackers operating out of the Frankfurt consulate ("Center for Cyber Intelligence Europe" or CCIE) are given diplomatic ("black") passports and State Department cover.
The instructions for incoming CIA hackers make Germany's counter-intelligence efforts appear inconsequential: "Breeze through German Customs because you have your cover-for-action story down pat, and all they did was stamp your passport" Your Cover Story (for this trip) Q: Why are you here? A: Supporting technical consultations at the Consulate. Two earlier WikiLeaks publications give further detail on CIA approaches to customs and secondary screening procedures.
Once in Frankfurt CIA hackers can travel without further border checks to the 25 European countries that are part of the Shengen open border area - including France, Italy and Switzerland.
A number of the CIA's electronic attack methods are designed for physical proximity.
These attack methods are able to penetrate high security networks that are disconnected from the internet, such as police record database. In these cases, a CIA officer, agent or allied intelligence officer acting under instructions, physically infiltrates the targeted workplace.
The attacker is provided with a USB containing malware developed for the CIA for this purpose, which is inserted into the targeted computer. The attacker then infects and exfiltrates data to removable media.
For example, the CIA attack system Fine Dining, provides 24 decoy applications for CIA spies to use.
To witnesses, the spy appears to be running a program showing videos (e.g VLC), presenting slides (Prezi), playing a computer game (Breakout2, 2048) or even running a fake virus scanner (Kaspersky, McAfee, Sophos).
But while the decoy application is on the screen, the underlying system is automatically infected and ransacked.
How the CIA dramatically increased proliferation risks
In what is surely one of the most astounding intelligence own goals in living memory, the CIA structured its classification regime such that for the most market valuable part of "Vault 7", the CIA's, weaponized malware (implants + zero days) Listening Posts (LP) Command and Control (C2) systems, ...the agency has little legal recourse.
The CIA made these systems unclassified.
Why the CIA chose to make its cyber-arsenal unclassified reveals how concepts developed for military use do not easily crossover to the 'battlefield' of cyber 'war'.
To attack its targets, the CIA usually requires that its implants communicate with their control programs over the internet.
If CIA implants, Command & Control and Listening Post software were classified, then CIA officers could be prosecuted or dismissed for violating rules that prohibit placing classified information onto the Internet.
Consequently the CIA has secretly made most of its cyber spying/war code unclassified. The U.S. government is not able to assert copyright either, due to restrictions in the U.S. Constitution.
This means that cyber 'arms' manufactures and computer hackers can freely "pirate" these 'weapons' if they are obtained. The CIA has primarily had to rely on obfuscation to protect its malware secrets.
Conventional weapons such as missiles may be fired at the enemy (i.e. into an unsecured area). Proximity to or impact with the target detonates the ordnance including its classified parts. Hence military personnel do not violate classification rules by firing ordnance with classified parts.
Ordnance will likely explode. If it does not, that is not the operator's intent.
Over the last decade U.S. hacking operations have been increasingly dressed up in military jargon to tap into Department of Defense funding streams.
For instance, attempted "malware injections" (commercial jargon) or "implant drops" (NSA jargon) are being called "fires" as if a weapon was being fired.
However the analogy is questionable.
Unlike bullets, bombs or missiles, most CIA malware is designed to live for days or even years after it has reached its 'target'. CIA malware does not "explode on impact" but rather permanently infests its target. In order to infect target's device, copies of the malware must be placed on the target's devices, giving physical possession of the malware to the target.
To exfiltrate data back to the CIA or to await further instructions the malware must communicate with CIA Command & Control (C2) systems placed on internet connected servers.
But such servers are typically not approved to hold classified information, so CIA command and control systems are also made unclassified.
A successful 'attack' on a target's computer system is more like a series of complex stock maneuvers in a hostile take-over bid or the careful planting of rumors in order to gain control over an organization's leadership rather than the firing of a weapons system.
If there is a military analogy to be made, the infestation of a target is perhaps akin to the execution of a whole series of military maneuvers against the target's territory including observation, infiltration, occupation and exploitation.
Evading forensics and anti-virus
A series of standards lay out CIA malware infestation patterns which are likely to assist forensic crime scene investigators as well as, Apple
"Tradecraft DO's and DON'Ts" contains CIA rules on how its malware should be written to avoid fingerprints implicating the "CIA, US government, or its witting partner companies" in "forensic review".
Similar secret standards cover the, use of encryption to hide CIA hacker and malware communication (pdf) describing targets & exfiltrated data (pdf) executing payloads (pdf) persisting (pdf), ...in the target's machines over time.
CIA hackers developed successful attacks against most well known anti-virus programs.
These are documented in, AV defeats Personal Security Products Detecting and defeating PSPs PSP/DebuggeRE Avoidance For example, Comodo was defeated by CIA malware placing itself in the Window's "Recycle Bin". While Comodo 6.x has a "Gaping Hole of DOOM".
CIA hackers discussed what the NSA's "Equation Group" hackers did wrong and how the CIA's malware makers could avoid similar exposure.
ExamplesThe CIA's Engineering Development Group (EDG) management system contains around 500 different projects (only some of which are documented by "Year Zero") each with their own sub-projects, malware and hacker tools.
The majority of these projects relate to tools that are used for,
penetration infestation ("implanting") control exfiltrationAnother branch of development focuses on the development and operation of Listening Posts (LP) and Command and Control (C2) systems used to communicate with and control CIA implants.
Special projects are used to target specific hardware from routers to smart TVs.
Some example projects are described below, but see the table of contents for the full list of projects described by WikiLeaks' "Year Zero".
The CIA's hand crafted hacking techniques pose a problem for the agency.
Each technique it has created forms a "fingerprint" that can be used by forensic investigators to attribute multiple different attacks to the same entity.
This is analogous to finding the same distinctive knife wound on multiple separate murder victims. The unique wounding style creates suspicion that a single murderer is responsible.
As soon one murder in the set is solved then the other murders also find likely attribution.
The CIA's Remote Devices Branch's UMBRAGE group collects and maintains a substantial library of attack techniques 'stolen' from malware produced in other states including the Russian Federation.
With UMBRAGE and related projects the CIA cannot only increase its total number of attack types but also misdirect attribution by leaving behind the "fingerprints" of the groups that the attack techniques were stolen from.
UMBRAGE components cover,
Fine Dining comes with a standardized questionnaire i.e menu that CIA case officers fill out.
The questionnaire is used by the agency's OSB (Operational Support Branch) to transform the requests of case officers into technical requirements for hacking attacks (typically "exfiltrating" information from computer systems) for specific operations.
The questionnaire allows the OSB to identify how to adapt existing tools for the operation, and communicate this to CIA malware configuration staff.
The OSB functions as the interface between CIA operational staff and the relevant technical support staff.
Among the list of possible targets of the collection are,
The 'menu' also asks for information if recurring access to the target is possible and how long unobserved access to the computer can be maintained.
This information is used by the CIA's 'JQJIMPROVISE' software (see below) to configure a set of CIA malware suited to the specific needs of an operation.
HIVE is a multi-platform CIA malware suite and its associated control software.
The project provides customizable implants for Windows, Solaris, MikroTik (used in internet routers) and Linux platforms and a Listening Post (LP)/Command and Control (C2) infrastructure to communicate with these implants.
The implants are configured to communicate via HTTPS with the webserver of a cover domain; each operation utilizing these implants has a separate cover domain and the infrastructure can handle any number of cover domains.
Each cover domain resolves to an IP address that is located at a commercial VPS (Virtual Private Server) provider.
The public-facing server forwards all incoming traffic via a VPN to a 'Blot' server that handles actual connection requests from clients.
It is setup for optional SSL client authentication: if a client sends a valid client certificate (only implants can do that), the connection is forwarded to the 'Honeycomb' toolserver that communicates with the implant.
If a valid certificate is missing (which is the case if someone tries to open the cover domain website by accident), the traffic is forwarded to a cover server that delivers an unsuspicious looking website.
The Honeycomb toolserver receives exfiltrated information from the implant; an operator can also task the implant to execute jobs on the target computer, so the toolserver acts as a C2 (command and control) server for the implant.
Similar functionality (though limited to Windows) is provided by the RickBobby project.
See the classified user and developer guides for HIVE.
Frequently Asked Questions
Why now?WikiLeaks published as soon as its verification and analysis were ready. In February the Trump administration has issued an Executive Order calling for a "Cyberwar" review to be prepared within 30 days.
While the review increases the timeliness and relevance of the publication it did not play a role in setting the publication date.
Names, email addresses and external IP addresses have been redacted in the released pages (70,875 redactions in total) until further analysis is complete. Over-redaction: Some items may have been redacted that are not employees, contractors, targets or otherwise related to the agency, but are, for example, authors of documentation for otherwise public projects that are used by the agency.
Identity vs. person: the redacted names are replaced by user IDs (numbers) to allow readers to assign multiple pages to a single author. Given the redaction process used a single person may be represented by more than one assigned identifier but no identifier refers to more than one real person.
Archive attachments (zip, tar.gz, ...), are replaced with a PDF listing all the file names in the archive. As the archive content is assessed it may be made available; until then the archive is redacted.
Attachments with other binary content, are replaced by a hex dump of the content to prevent accidental invocation of binaries that may have been infected with weaponized CIA malware. As the content is assessed it may be made available; until then the content is redacted.
Tens of thousands of routable IP addresses references, (including more than 22 thousand within the United States) that correspond to possible targets, CIA covert listening post servers, intermediary and test systems, are redacted for further exclusive investigation.
Binary files of non-public origin, are only available as dumps to prevent accidental invocation of CIA malware infected binaries.
The organizational chart (far above image) corresponds to the material published by WikiLeaks so far.
Since the organizational structure of the CIA below the level of Directorates is not public, the placement of the EDG and its branches within the org chart of the agency is reconstructed from information contained in the documents released so far.
It is intended to be used as a rough outline of the internal organization; please be aware that the reconstructed org chart is incomplete and that internal reorganizations occur frequently.
"Year Zero" contains 7818 web pages with 943 attachments from the internal development groupware. The software used for this purpose is called Confluence, a proprietary software from Atlassian.
Webpages in this system (like in Wikipedia) have a version history that can provide interesting insights on how a document evolved over time; the 7818 documents include these page histories for 1136 latest versions.
The order of named pages within each level is determined by date (oldest first). Page content is not present if it was originally dynamically created by the Confluence software (as indicated on the re-constructed page).
What time period is covered?
The years 2013 to 2016. The sort order of the pages within each level is determined by date (oldest first).
WikiLeaks has obtained the CIA's creation/last modification date for each page but these do not yet appear for technical reasons. Usually the date can be discerned or approximated from the content and the page order.
If it is critical to know the exact time/date contact WikiLeaks.
What is "Vault 7"
"Vault 7" is a substantial collection of material about CIA activities obtained by WikiLeaks.
When was each part of "Vault 7" obtained?
Part one was obtained recently and covers through 2016. Details on the other parts will be available at the time of publication.
Is each part of "Vault 7" from a different source?
Details on the other parts will be available at the time of publication.
What is the total size of "Vault 7"?
The series is the largest intelligence publication in history.
How did WikiLeaks obtain each part of "Vault 7"?
Sources trust WikiLeaks to not reveal information that might help identify them.
Isn't WikiLeaks worried that the CIA will act against its staff to stop the series?
No. That would be certainly counter-productive.
Has WikiLeaks already 'mined' all the best stories?
No. WikiLeaks has intentionally not written up hundreds of impactful stories to encourage others to find them and so create expertise in the area for subsequent parts in the series. They're there.
Look. Those who demonstrate journalistic excellence may be considered for early access to future parts.
Won't other journalists find all the best stories before me?
Unlikely. There are very considerably more stories than there are journalists or academics who are in a position to write them.
Xem thêm bài viết tại đây.submitted by tiendientuorg to u/tiendientuorg [link] [comments]
Chắc hẳn mối quan tâm hàng đầu của các bạn độc giả khi tham gia thị trường cryptocurrency là tìm được sàn giao dịch Bitcoin uy tín, sàn mua bán Ethereum danh tiếng,… Trong bài viết này, tiendientu.org sẽ giúp bạn trả lời những câu hỏi như sàn giao dịch là gì, sàn mua bán Bitcoin nào đang phổ biến và được tin dùng trên cả thế giới và ở Việt Nam.
1. Sàn giao dịch là gì?Sàn giao dịch cryptocurrency (không nên gọi là “sàn giao dịch tiền ảo“) là bộ phần quan trọng trong thị trường tiền mã hóa nói riêng và ngành công nghiệp blockchain nói chung. Đây là nơi giúp nhà đầu tư và người dùng dễ dàng tiếp cận cũng như trao đổi các tài sản mã hóa.
Hình dung đơn giản, nếu chứng khoán được mua bán trên những sàn giao dịch chứng khoán được Nhà nước cấp phép (lẫn không cấp phép – thị trường chợ đen), thì coin và token cũng được niêm yết và mua bán lên những sàn giao dịch dành riêng cho cryptocurrency.
Sàn giao dịch là gì?
Chẳng hạn, khi bạn muốn mua Bitcoin, ngoài cách mua trực tiếp từ người bán mà bạn biết, bạn cũng có thể tìm một sàn giao dịch cryptocurrency có niêm yết BTC, đăng ký tài khoản, nạp tiền và đặt lệnh mua. Thông qua hình thức này, bạn có thể mua coin mà không cần biết bên bán là ai, ở đâu,… Dĩ nhiên, vấn đề là bạn phải sử dụng sàn giao dịch Bitcoin uy tín.
Khi thị trường cryptocurrency ngày càng phát triển, sàn giao dịch cũng xuất hiện ngày càng nhiều, đa dạng về số lượng lẫn chất lượng. Bên cạnh đó, sàn giao dịch không chỉ niêm yết mỗi Bitcoin mà còn có nhiều đồng coin/token khác, chẳng hạn như sàn giao dịch Ethereum, Litecoin, Bitcoin Cash,… tùy theo nhu cầu của người dùng.
Bên cạnh đó, dù sàn giao dịch tiền ảo Việt Nam tính đến hiện nay đã có khá nhiều, nhưng chưa có đủ lượng người dùng, cũng như chưa nhận được quá nhiều sự ủng hộ. Người dân Việt Nam vẫn có xu hướng ưa chuộng những sàn giao dịch tiền ảo trên thế giới nhiều hơn.
2. Sàn giao dịch tập trung và sàn giao dịch phi tập trung khác nhau như thế nào?Công nghệ blockchain có đặc điểm khác biệt là tính phân quyền, vì vậy những sàn giao dịch được xây dựng trên nền tảng blockchain cũng phân quyền – hay phi tập trung.
Sàn giao dịch tập trung và sàn giao dịch phi tập trung khác nhau như thế nào?
Nói một cách đơn giản, một sàn giao dịch cryptocurrency phi tập trung (Decentralized Exchange – DEX) cắt giảm bên thứ ba trung gian bằng cách tạo ra một môi trường hoạt động mà không cần phải đặt niềm tin rất thông minh. Các giao dịch được thực hiện thông qua smart contract và atomic swap (hoán đổi nguyên tử) để không phải thông qua bên thứ ba. Nó chỉ là một giao dịch ngang hàng peer-to-peer.
Dù lý tưởng là vậy, nhưng DEX vẫn còn trong giai đoạn rất mới, chưa có nhiều tiến bộ lẫn thân thiện với người dùng như những sàn tập trung. Nên hiện tại và có thể là trong thời gian tới, sàn giao dịch tập trung vẫn chiếm hầu hết khối lượng giao dịch cryptocurrency.
3. Tất cả sàn giao dịch đều có thể dùng tiền pháp định (như USD, EUR) chăng?Câu trả lời là: Không.
Tất cả các sàn giao dịch đều có cặp giao dịch crypto – crypto (ví dụ: BTC/ETH, BTC/USDT), nhưng không phải sàn nào cũng đều có cặp tiền pháp định – tiền mã hóa (tức dùng USD hay EUR hay các đồng tiền tệ khác để mua BTC, ETH).
Tất cả sàn giao dịch đều có thể dùng tiền pháp định (như USD, EUR) chăng?
Các sàn giao dịch nổi tiếng nhất có hỗ trợ cho tiền pháp định là:
Coinbase – sàn giao dịch phổ biến nhất ở Mỹ, hỗ trợ Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Litecoin và Ethereum,…
Gemini – có trụ sở tại New York, đáp ứng đủ các quy định khắc khe của Mỹ. Hỗ trợ Bitcoin và Ethereum.
Robinhood – một ứng dụng trading phổ biến cung cấp các cặp tiền pháp định để mua bán với Bitcoin và Ethereum.
4. Mở tài khoản trên sàn có phải xác minh?Các quy định của mỗi quốc gia vẫn còn chưa rõ ràng, nhưng sàn giao dịch trên toàn thế giới đều yêu cầu phải có những xác minh tối thiểu để xác thực tài khoản.
Nhiều sàn giao dịch cho phép người dùng mở một tài khoản mà không cần xác minh danh tính, nhưng những tài khoản đó sẽ có hạn mức rút tiền/gửi tiền cực kỳ nhỏ. Xác minh cơ bản thường yêu cầu ảnh trên hộ chiếu/ID của người dùng và Xác thực 2 yếu tố (2 Factor Authentication – 2FA). 2FA là một mật khẩu bí mật được tái tạo sau mỗi 30 giây hoặc lâu hơn mà người dùng phải nhập mỗi lần muốn đăng nhập vào tài khoản. 2FA thường được lưu trên điện thoại của người dùng.
Mở tài khoản trên sàn có phải xác minh?
Các bạn độc giả có thể tìm những bài viết hướng dẫn cụ thể cách mở và xác thực tài khoản của những sàn giao dịch cụ thể trên website Tiendientu.org.
5. Một số sàn cryptocurrency có khối lượng giao dịch cao trên thế giới5.1 Binance
Mặc dù Binance chỉ vừa ra mắt vào năm 2017, nhưng khối lượng giao dịch luôn thuộc top cao nhất. Sàn giao dịch ban đầu có trụ sở tại Trung Quốc nhưng đã chuyển đến Malta do những quy định pháp lý ngặt nghèo ở quốc gia đông dân nhất.
Binance phổ biến đến nỗi hầu hết các altcoin đều muốn được niêm yết trên sàn này đầu tiên sau khi ICO. Xác thực cấp 2 cho phép người dùng rút 100 Bitcoin trong khi Cấp 1 chỉ cho phép rút dưới 2 Bitcoin/ngày.
Bittrex là sàn giao dịch tiền mã hóa lâu đời có trụ sở tại Mỹ. Trong khi các loại coin phổ biến nhất được trade là BTC và ETH, Bittrex đã cung cấp hơn 250 cặp trading. Đây là sàn giao dịch nổi tiếng với giao diện dễ sử dụng cho người mới bắt đầu tham gia vào thị trường.
Bitfinex có trụ sở tại Hồng Kông, là một sàn giao dịch tiền mã hóa lâu đời khác vẫn nằm trong top 10 tính theo khối lượng giao dịch.
Một số sàn cryptocurrency có khối lượng giao dịch cao trên thế giới.
5.4. Coinbase Pro (trước đây là GDAX)
CoinBase là một trong những sàn giao dịch phổ biến nhất trên thế giới. Sàn này không thích hợp cho người mới bắt đầu nhưng rất hữu ích cho giao dịch ký quỹ và có hỗ trợ cho tiền pháp định. Người dùng cũng có được khoản bảo hiểm lên đến $250.000 từ Tổng công ty Bảo hiểm Ký thác Liên bang (Mỹ).
6. Sàn giao dịch Bitcoin phổ biến ở Việt NamNhư đã nói ở trên, người dân Việt vẫn ưa chuộng những sàn giao dịch nước ngoài, tham gia trading cùng toàn thế giới, nhưng hiện nay đã có một số sàn mua bán Bitcoin trong nước được nhiều người sử dụng.
6.1. Remitano là gì?
Đúng hơn Remitano.com là một chợ Bitcoin, kết nối người bán và mua tự tin giao dịch an toàn dù không quen biết nhau.
Remitano bị mất kết nối đến VCB.
Binomo.com/vn là một sàn giao dịch và đầu tư theo hình thức quyền chọn nhị phân (Binary Option). Tức là người chơi sẽ dự đoán chiều hướng giá trị tài sản sẽ tăng hay giảm để thu lợi nhuận trong một khoảng thời gian cá cược nhất định. Nếu bạn lựa chọn đúng, bạn sẽ nhận được tiền lãi ngay lập tức, còn sai thì sẽ mất đi số tiền cược.
Nguyên lý hoạt động của Binomo cũng tương tự giao dịch trên thị trường chứng khoán hay giao dịch cryptocurrency. Để chơi Binomo bạn không chỉ cần có kiến thức mà cònn cần kỹ năng giao dịch, tính toán thời điểm “vào lệnh”. Các giao dịch trên Binomo được phân chia dựa theo múi giờ, ở đó các khách hàng có thể trao đổi và mua bán từ các cặp tiền tệ, cổ phiếu đến hàng hóa để kiếm lời.
Binomo có giao diện thân thiện nhưng không thích hợp với người ít kinh nghiệm Quyền chọn nhị phân.
TUY NHIÊN, Binomo là lĩnh vực đầu tư có rủi ro cực kỳ cao, đặc biệt không dành cho người không có hoặc có ít kinh nghiệm về trading, đầu tư tài chính. Bạn có thể mất toàn bộ số vốn chỉ trong một thời gian rất ngắn. Đồng thời, rất nhiều cơ quan quản lý tài chính trên toàn cầu đã cảnh báo rằng Quyền chọn nhị phân (Binary Option) rất gần với lừa đảo.
Tiendientu.org không khuyến cáo các bạn độc giả lựa chọn sàn này giao dịch, và nếu có thì hãy đầu tư số tiền rất ít.
7. Tóm tắtSàn giao dịch là gì? Sàn giao dịch cryptocurrency (hay còn gọi là “sàn giao dịch tiền ảo“) là nền tảng để mọi người mua bán các đồng tiền mã hóa.
Sàn giao dịch tiền ảo trên thế giới có rất nhiều, đa dạng nhiều thể loại, có những sàn giao dịch Ethereum, Litecoin, Bitcoin Cash,… Sàn giao dịch tiền ảo Việt Nam trong năm 2018 cũng xuất hiện khá nhiều, nhưng chưa thu hút được người dùng đủ để cạnh tranh với các sàn nước ngoài.
Số lượng sàn giao dịch Bitcoin hay sàn mua bán Bitcoin trên thế giới nhiều vô số kể, nhưng có những sàn giao dịch Bitcoin uy tín, phổ biến trong cộng đồng có thể kể đến như Binance, Huobi, Coinbase, Gemini, Bittrex, BitMex, OKEx,…
Cập nhật tin tức mới nhất về blockchain và cryptocurrency tại Tiendientu.org
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I got curious when OP wrote bitcoin.org is recommending an offline iPhone. That does not seem to be the case right now.You mean what you wrote, because your newest comment before this one was before 8 months ago. Suddenly you managed to make a comment after 8 months. Good one.
That being said, your recommendation seems to be questionable at best under that perspective, as your recommended wallet uses Centralized Validation.Then use bread wallet or [link]1 .
I agree with OP. You should not try to sell your own preferences as superior. It's obvious you got triggered by the "iPhone". There are good and bad androids. An iPhone is an iPhone.Take a load of this guy, agreeing with himself. I wasn't "TRIGGERED" by your comment but astonished on how you responded when I mentioned the word "Android". You wrote a book on how wrong I was and how stupid I am for giving an advice. And then you follow it by "AND DONT RECOMMEND ANDROID, KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE, oh and I uhh...don't like...apple." Sure you don't.
Oh, so you installed and compiled it from source? Ah my bad. I thought everyone was following their download instructions. (/s) A lot of good, open source projects distributed malware like that.Yeah, you can do that. Now you're spouting nonsense by saying mycelium which is adviced by bitcoin.org has malware in it. Also, can I have any sources on your claims about "A lot of good, open source projects" Distributing malware by being opensource?
Sorry, but I will not get lost in this advocacy war with you. My point is way more general that protecting your choices emotionally. You read "iPhone" you got triggered, get the fuck off.What advocacy ? You started this entire dramatic answer. You're using secondary accounts pretending to be other people, telling me to fuck off, what is wrong with you? Its just an operating system, why are you so damn upset over this?
I will stand by my ad hominem. You must be insane or stupid to recommend an average redditor to modify and replace their android operating system, just so they could use a better wallet.You do realize that LineageOS is just a fork of AOSP, right? Its not another operating system. And its very easy to do that. You unlock your os, replace the bootloader with TWRP, replace the operating system with LOS, and install an app. There are tools that do this for you (except for installing the app).
Your idea is just so crazy and insane. An operating system has far more attack vectors. Far more problems. Far more devices to support.Uh iOS is an operating system too....
Did you read their code? "Open source" is not a magic word. I read every line of code in breadwallet. I keep track with their few commits. I don't care if their is a "breadwallet" for Android. I use it on an iPhone that is not connected to the internet and has no modifications from factory settings.Sure you do. And if you do, people like you do review popular projects on github. So i'm sure others have reviewed the source code for mycelium and lineageOS since they're very popular. But wait! Didn't you just say that you can't trust opensource software because they might release another version with malware in it? Hmmm...
Just the sheer number of programming languages your OS recommendation spans. And you don't see the ridiculous: You understand that your device is too insecure so you apply a bandaid. But those bandaids don't work.Ok, so please, go ahead and hack my cold wallet which runs on android and has no baseband antennas in it. I'm waiting. (By the way I don't use bitcoin anymore).
Just the first of the tens of repos you linked in that OS has 23 thousand commits. It's not peer reviewed. We are talking about hundreds of contributors that push arbitrary code. VS fucking 6 you retard. It literally took me less than 15 minutes to spot the first memory leak. C++ code is hard.I heard /masterhacker is hiring. But seriously though, mycelium wallet has around 1200 commits, and lineageOS has over 1,809 repositories. Which one did you check? Because there are a lot of repos for lots of different devices.
No I couldn't. There is a difference. Don't spread misinformation if you cannot grasp that bit of information.Actually there isn't LOL. You're using big boy words, because you think they sound smarter but they really don't. Any program can be "Binary software", a.k.a, every fucking program that runs on computers. Yes, at the top level the code might be something like C, but at the core its binary, unless you're using something else. But in this sense, its pretty obvious that you don't have to use "Binary software" when you're speaking about an application running on phones.
I get into a hissy fit over you recommending off-topic insecurity practices under the guise of security. Get the fuck out of here. Unlocking a phone alone is usually done by literally trusting criminal hackers doing the deed for you. I don't know if Samsung is on top of their game yet. I get they are doing a great job. I get that some brands come with tools to install custom operating systems. I like HTC.No, you got into a hissy fit because you're an iOS fanboy. That's your issue. I recommended it because:
But normally you need to root your fucking device to "mod" it. So you are trusting on some zero day that was traded in the blackmarket where someone made a lot of money (illegally) on it. You need to make your device insecure in order to install the OS to begin with.No you don't. You need to unlock the boot loader, and then you can relock it. You really have zero knowledge about how android operates. Also, there are zerodays for iOS as well. And didn't I mention that you'd use this as a cold wallet? You know, without an internet connection .
Who gives a shit.Please, simmer down, its just an operating system. You're obviously annoyed by the fact that I mentioned android. Don't be a fanboy. Fanboys suck. I am not a fanboy when it comes to android, because I do know android has its own flaws.
Dude, you have no idea what you are talking about. Don't always try to be so special. Just get a hardware wallet from Amazon. Jesus. Fucking. Christ.Why? Whats wrong with having an encrypted wallet running on a raspberry pi? Please give me an answer. Unless you have people looking through your junk, you don't need a dedicated bitcoin coin wallet, with closed source code.
Edit: When I am saying I don't want to get into an advocacy debate with you, I mean it. I'll just block you. Respond if you want, but there is a chance nobody will read it. Don't go crying because you had to be a special snowflake, had to do all that complicated stuff on your own (what others call you nerd for) and then get burned. But way more importantly Don't recommend others to do it.Dude what the hell ? You're gonna block me because I replied to your comment? What's your issue?
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